003 - On the Move

Conceptual Question

Why do people move to cities?

Approaches to Learning

Key Terminology

  • Voluntary Migration

  • Seasonal Migration

  • Push and pull factor

  • Migration Models

Useful Links

Activity One - Explain - Why the growth?

We have now explored why people may wish to migrate and the importance of questioning the information that you are given. We are now going to use a second visible thinking routine - See Think Wonder - to explore an image. To understand how to use the See Think Wonder thinking routine, we divide it into three key steps:


What do you see in the image? Describe what you see.


What do you think about the image? What do you think is happening in the image? What is it being used for?


What questions do you have about the image?


  1. Collect a copy of the See Think Wonder template in the 'Useful Resources' box and work your way through the routine for the cartoon which is also in the 'Useful Resource' box. You will be given approximately two minutes to complete each stage. We will discuss your ideas as a group after each section.

  2. Mind map the reasons why people may want to migrate? Maybe consider why your parents chose to move to Geneva.

  3. Next to the words put a plus (+) or minus ( - ) sign next to it to suggest whether the factor is a push or pull factor.

  4. We are now going to categorise the reasons for migration.

                  • Using a green pen underline the environmental factors.

                  • Using a red pen underline the economic factors.

                  • Using a blue pen underline the social factors.

                  • Using a pink pen underline the political factors.

  5. Watch the youtube clip below and add any factors that you have missed.

Useful Resources

See, Think, Wonder

Activity Two - Models of Migration - Lee's Model

Within the discipline of Geography we often use models to discuss key concepts. One of those is Lee's model as it's aim is to put into a single diagram the thought process that a migrant may go through when considering a move from their country or place of origin. It incorporates the push and pull factors for the place of origin and the place of destination along with something that are caused intervening obstacles. This obstacles could be anything from not being able to get a visa for a country to not being able to afford to travel which could cause the migrant to look at another area to live. Answer the following questions on lined paper using the information in the 'Useful Resources' box to help you.

  1. Draw a diagram of Lee's Model of Migration and give it a title. Remember to draw in pencil.

  2. Write onto the model what the intervening obstacles might be.

  3. How is Lee's Model of Migration a more accurate view of how people migrate than just looking at the push and pull factors?

  4. Choose one of the YouTube clips to watch and create a Lee's model diagram for that example. Rather than just putting the symbols for the push and pull factors, write what they are for that example. Use different colours to write in for the push and pull factors, for example, green for pull and pink for push.

Useful Resources

Example - Japan

Example - United Arab Emirates

Example - Spain

Activity Three - Models of Migration - Ravenstein's Law

Answer the following questions to gain knowledge of the generalisations that have been devised concerning who, when and why people migrate.

  1. Who is Ernst Ravenstein?

  2. What are Ravenstein's Laws of Migration?

  3. Use a different example from the one you used in Activity Two, suggest why the laws may still be true today?

  4. Using the same example as the one you used in question three, which laws may not apply today?

  5. By reading the weblink to the Geo Room, outline the criticisms of Ravenstein's Law.