001 - Poverty Reduction
Geographic Knowledge and Understanding
Global and regional/continental progress towards poverty reduction, including the growth of the "new global middle class".
The way in which a country develops is a process. Each country will ‘experience’ a different process due to their own unique situation - governance, natural resources, geographical location, climate and population resources.
- To be able to describe and explain global progress towards poverty reduction
- To be able to describe and explain regional/continental progress towards poverty reduction
- To be able to explain the growth of the ‘new global middle class’
- Middle class
- Emerging world/market
- Disposable income
- Agrarian society
- Industrial society
Define the words above by using the useful links below and the course text book. You will be expected to use these words throughout this unit and beyond.
Activity One - Describe
In Geography it is really important to be able to describe trends effectively. When you are faced with a graph you need to describe the overall trend (increasing, decreasing, fluctuating etc) and then illustrate it with data. Then describe any anomalies which also need illustrating with data. If you do not include data in your answers you are losing out on easy marks.
- What is the difference between poverty and absolute poverty?
- Using image one below describe the trend of global poverty.
- Using image two describe the changes in poverty.
- Using image three describe the changes in regional poverty.
Activity Two - Examples
A fundamental aspect of Geography is being able to link theory to real life examples. But what is the difference between a case study, a detailed example and an example?
Case Studies Vs Detailed Examples Vs Examples
'A case study is located, detailed and used for discussion. Ideally case studies should be recent...' (IBO Geography Guide 2017)
'When examples are used, students should not just provide one-word responses but should offer some development. An example is a sentence or two that enriches an answer; it may include a specific location, an amount, or a date, all showing a greater depth of knowledge and understanding.' (IBO Geography Guide 2017)
So what is a detailed example? This bridges somewhere in between the case study and example. A paragraph that includes a specific location and data to show understanding.
Mr. Allaway coined the idea of the IB 'Big Five' countries to try and focus his students to research a more manageable number of case studies. We will be trying to do the same but it is not a hard and fast rule as there are some countries or areas of countries that will help us to answer a syllabus point more effectively than the 'Big Five'. We are going to focus on the following countries:
- Find the percentage rate of poverty for our big five countries.
Activity Three - Explain
You can hopefully now describe the changes in poverty around the world over time but it is crucial to be able to explain why this has happened. Is it just because the UN have developed a number of goals to be achieved? Or is it changes to the general economy that have occurred in different countries? Or a different reason entirely?
- Watch the youtube clip below and write down the reasons why some countries are poor and others are rich. You could mind map this on A4 plain paper with coloured pens if you prefer.
- What is Rostow's Model of Development? Draw a diagram to help you explain it.
- How does Rostow's Model of Development help to explain levels of poverty?
- Describe the Sustainable Development Goal that hopes to alleviate poverty.
Activity Four - Middle Classes - Describe and Explain
While the overall population size of the world is increasing so is the overall wealth. This is generating a larger amount of people who class themselves as middle class. What are we? How can we tell?
- Using the abstract and graph below describe the growth of the middle classes.
- How can the growth of the middle classes be linked to Rostow's Model of Development?
Exam Style Question
Describe and suggest two reasons for global progress towards poverty reduction. (2+2+2 marks)