003 - Migration

Geographic Knowledge and Understanding

The causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement.


The movement of people is a process that can impact the place of origin and the place of destination.


Key Terminology

Define the first seven words above using your 'Geography Global Change' textbook by Oakes Page 20. For the final three words you will be defining them in activity one.

Activity One - Causes

Before we begin to look at areas that have been impacted by migration it is useful to review a series of migration models. We are going to focus on Lee's Model of migration and Ravenstein's Law. 

Activity Two - Describe

"There were 50.8 million internally displaced people across the world at the end of 2019, 45.7 million as a result of conflict and violence, and 5.1 million as a result of disasters." (IDMC, 2020). 

This number increased to 100million in 2022. (UN)

While I am sure we are all reading the news on a daily basis it is easy to overlook the large number of people who are being forced from their homes every day unless there is a heart-wrenching image to go along with the article. I am sure you are all familiar with the now iconic images of the dead child being washed up on to the beach or the boats overloaded with migrants but have you thought about the impact these migrants are having on their place of origin and destination? Before we look into the causes and consequences of forced migration lets look at where people are moving from. 

Useful Resources

Internal Migration due to Natural Disasters

Mapping the World's Immigration Flows

Metrocosm - All the World's Immigration Visualized in 1 map - click on the YouTube link to see the map - it is old but the flows are similar today.


Global Report on Internal Displacement

Activity Three - Example of Place - Political

Now you know some of the key reasons why people become internally displaced along with where this has happened it is time to link the ideas to an actual place. The syllabus specifically asks us to look at two detailed examples which show the causes and consequences of forced migration. We need to look at migration caused by political factors and by environmental. The first detailed example we are going to look at is Syria. It is topical and does impact us here in Europe. 

Useful Resources

Activity Four - Example of Place - Environmental

For this example of forced migration caused by environmental factors you could investigate an area we will/have explored in the Higher Level lessons such as in Extreme Environments. Standards do not worry though as we will be looking at this through a different 'lens'! Kivalina, Alaska is a town that is being hugely impacted by the change in the climate. The sea ice is melting which is impacting their ability to hunt. Traditionally the sea ice also helped to protect the coastline and that barrier is now disappearing. 

Useful Resources

Exam Style Question

To what extent is migration primarily caused by geo-political factors? [10 marks]

This lesson was development in collaboration with Richard Allaway from geographyalltheway. For more resources please visit www.geographyalltheway.com