004 - The effects of transnational manufacturing and services

Syllabus Point

Discuss (AO3) the reasons for and consequences of the relocation of polluting industries (such as some TNCs) and waste disposal (such as ICT, chemical and nuclear waste) to countries with weaker environmental controls and safety regulations.

Key Terminology

Define the following words using the 'Command Word' posters in the classroom, 'Geography Course Companion' text book by Nagle and Cooke and the links provided.

  • Discuss
  • Polluting industry

Useful Links

Activity One - E-Waste

Every one of you owns more than one electrical device, whether it may be a phone, laptop, tablet, home computer, printer, TV, camera etc, do you ever consider what happens to your device once you upgrade? And yet we want to own more or get the latest version of something. Below is an image of an e-waste dump in Ghana.

  • How does the image below make you feel?

Image One - E-waste in Ghana


Taken From - https://stampsy.com/stamp/7210

Activity Two - Comprehension

We are now going to have a look at what exactly e-waste is and why we don't always know where are routes of waste are. We donate a fair amount of electronic goods from school for good causes are we just contributing to illegal e-waste? Answer the following questions by watching the youtube clip, reviewing the map and reading the 'Useful Resources' below:

  1. What is e-waste?
  2. Describe the known and suspected routes of e-waste dumping.
  3. Why does our e-waste go to these areas?
  4. What impact does our e-waste have on countries with weaker environmental controls?

Image Two - E-Waste Dumping Routes

Taken from worldloop.org

Taken From -


Useful Resources

e-waste guide.info

'Global Interactions' textbook by Guinness pages 114-117

Image Three - Global Interactions

Taken From: Amazon

Taken From -


Activity Three - Extension

  • Make notes on the impacts of chemical and nuclear waste - using the textbook 'Global Interactions' by Guinness pages 117-118.

Exam Style Question

Examine the causes and consequences of polluting industries locating in countries with weaker controls. (15 marks)