003 - Cultural Hybridity

Geographic Knowledge and Understanding

The effects of global interactions on cultural diversity in different places:

glocalization of branded commodities, and cultural hybridity

cultural landscape changes in the built environment


Global interactions have the power to influence cultural diversity. TNC follow a process of glocalization to maximise opportunities.


  • To have knowledge and understanding of the glocalization of branded commodities.

  • To have knowledge and understanding of cultural hybridity.

  • To have knowledge and understanding of the cultural landscape changes in the built environment.

Key Terminology

            • Globalisation

            • Glocalization or Glocalisation

            • Homogenization

            • Uniform Landscape

We will be using the key terms above throughout the lesson but if you are still unsure of their meaning after you have completed the activities then review them using the 'Useful Links' below.

Activity One - Comprehension

We are going to be looking at different examples of how companies have changed or adapted their goods to suit different markets. Glocalisation is very common and can impact the type of food that is found in McDonald's to the different sizes or shapes of clothing. We will watch the first YouTube clip together to get an understanding of what glocalisation actually is. Answer the following questions using the 'Useful Resources' box below.

      1. What are the limitations of globalisation?

      2. Where does the word glocalisation come from?

      3. How does glocalisation occur?

      4. What are the positives of glocalisation?

      5. Watch the following youtube clips and suggest how they illustrate the importance of developing a global product for a local market.

      6. Create a detailed case example outlining how McDonalds has become a glocalised brand.

      7. Create a second detailed example outlining how Disney has become a glocalised brand.

      8. Create a third detailed example outlining how KitKat has become a glocalised brand.

Useful Resources

Activity Two - Draw

The word homogenisation is often used today when the landscape of different places is discussed, but what does a homogenized landscape really look like?

      • Collect a piece of A4 paper and draw a typical main or high street in a city.

      • Annotate the buildings or structures.

      • We will then compare what we have.

Activity Three - Comprehension

Now that you know what a homogenised landscape is, answer the questions below using the 'Global Interactions' textbook by Guinness, Pages 132-138.

      1. What four examples given in the textbook to show that homogenisation of landscapes are occurring across the world.

      2. Why do cities become homogenised?

      3. What is a world city?

      4. Give two examples of world cities with evidence to illustrate why these areas deserve the title.

      5. For the same cities you have chosen in question four, suggest what keeps these areas distinct.

      6. What is the CBD and what do you expect to see within it?

      7. How does retail help to shape the urban landscape?

      8. Describe the other examples of features in cities which make the areas homogenised. Think about the shopping centres, modes of transport and where people live.

      9. Housing is something that can make areas distinct, particularly in poorer nations. Describe the differences in the housing between rich and poor neighbourhoods.

      10. Describe what a gradient of homogenisation is.

Activity Four - Understand - Cultural Hybridity

Cultural hybridity is when a new culture develops from a set of two more cultural traits. This could refer to Creolisation. This is a culture which has developed from the global interconnections of Creole cultures (Caribbean and Indian Ocean areas) and colonial societies (Louisiana, USA). The displacement of large numbers of people from one area and them being forced to work elsewhere created this unique hybridisation. It doesn't always have to happen in such an extreme way though. K-Pop (a genre of music I have never heard of as I am of a certain age) has become a global phenomenon. K-Pop or South Korean popular music is influenced by a range of music from around the world. As wikipedia informs me - "K-pop is a cultural product that features values, identity and meanings that go beyond their strictly commercial value." It merges a Western sound with Asian dance performance. Their influence transcends boundaries and has been taken up in the Western World quickly due to the increasing influence of social media.

      • Watch the YouTube clip below and make notes on the rise of the K-Pop phenomenon. Consider:

                • Lifestyle

                • Fashion

                • Sound

                • Spread

Exam Style Question

Explain why the landscape of major world cities are becoming increasingly similar. [12 marks]

This lesson was development in collaboration with Richard Allaway from geographyalltheway. For more resources please visit www.geographyalltheway.com