004 - Demographic


Geographic Knowledge and Understanding

The demographic dividend and the ways in which population could be considered a resource when contemplating possible futures.


There are potential positive possibilities for a country with the necessary conditions to produce a demographic dividend. Decision-maker have the power to encourage the necessary conditions.


  • To be able to describe and explain the ways in which population could be considered a resource when contemplating possible futures.
  • To be able to explain the causes and consequences of a country having a population dividend.
  • To be able to use Kenya as a case study of a country benefiting from a demographic dividend.

Key Terminology

            • Overpopulation
            • Population Dividend
            • Youth Bulge

Define the key terms above by using the 'Useful Links' below:

Useful Links

Activity One - Watch

You now know what a population dividend is from defining the key terms but what does it actually mean in practice? The world's population is set to exceed 9 billion by 2070 and to have a chance at slowing the population at all we need to raise the living standards of the poorest. Watch the Ted Talk below featuring Hans Rosling and make notes on how he believes population change should occur. Yes, the Talk Talk is a bit retro but the key points still apply today.

Activity Two - Watch and Read

It is clear that our global population is changing but can it be used to a country's advantage? We often just discuss the issues of having a large population rather than seeing as an economic advantage.

    1. Using image one below, describe the relationship between economic outcome and the changes in population structure within India.
    2. Read the article title 'The Demographic Bomb - India?' and suggest why the reduction in the dependancy ratio could actually be a negative factor for India.
    3. Watch the youtube clip below and write down what a country needs to do to make the most of the opportunities presented by a population dividend.

Activity Three - Case Study

For this syllabus point, it specifically asks us to study one case study of a country that benefits from a demographic dividend. While we should probably focus on Morocco as that is where we went on our field trip, we are going to focus on Kenya instead as there is so much information out there. To help with your revision it would be best to create a case study that fills just one side of A4 paper. In reality, you are not going to remember more than that! Collect a piece of A4 paper from the trolley and if you prefer a set of coloured pens. Make notes on the following points:

                • A description of the change in population - including data.
                • A description of what is being done to make the most of the change.
                • The benefits of the change.
                • Any problems that have been created.

Exam Style Question

Explain two reasons why a country could experience a demographic dividend. [2 + 2]