004 - Caves

Factual Question

What is a Karst environment?
What landforms are created in Karst environments?

Key Terminology

  • Fold mountain
  • Karst environment
  • Impermeable
  • Permeable
  • Porous
We will be defining the words above throughout the lesson, but if you are still unsure then click on the link below.

Activity One - Mountains

  1. How are the Himalayas formed? These are an excellent example of a fold mountain range.
  2. Which two plate margins are converging?

Formation of the Himalayas

  • Using an A4 map of the world and your ATLAS mark on the location of the major mountain ranges:
        • Himalayas
        • Alps
        • Rockies
        • Andes
        • Carpathian
        • Atlas
        • Ural

Activity Two - Limestone Environments

We are focusing on karst rock formations as this is what we will visit on the Medieval Pilgrimage towards the end of the school year.
    1. What is a karst environment?
    2. How is limestone formed?
    3. What does the word permeable mean?
    4. What does the word impermeable mean?
    5. What does the word porous mean?
    6. How does the water weather the limestone?
    7. With the aid of diagrams describe how the different landforms are created.

Limestone Features

Alternative Video on Karst Landscapes

Formation of Karst Landscape

Year 8 - Karst Environments

Activity Three - Leaflet and Models

  • Your task is to develop a guide on lucidpress to explain what the different landforms look like and how they are created. Try and include the following:
        • Clints
        • Grykes
        • Swallow Hole (also known as a sink hole)
        • Cavern or Cave
        • Stalagmite
        • Stalactite
        • Gorge

  • You need to include a description of the landform, a diagram/photo if it and an explanation of how it is formed (this is the process).


To present this guide you will be using lucidpress. Remember that the information is more important than the actual look of the guide. Do think about how you will display your work in your logical and sequential order. Remember to:
          • Spell check your work
          • Diagrams have figure numbers and titles
          • All work that is not yours is sourced in the bibliography

  • Along with the guide you will be asked to create a model which will illustrate all the features you have included in your guide. To do this you can either make or buy play dough. 

How to make Play Dough

How to Make Play Dough (Play Doh)

by ZENA-MARIE on 6 MAY 2012

Post image for How to Make Play Dough (Play Doh)

This is possibly the easiest play dough recipe ever. It takes about 5 minutes to make and best of all there is no cooking.  Just throw all the ingredients in a bowl and mix. Simple as that. It’s great for making with kids and will last for ages. You can add glitter to the mix for added sparkle and even some peppermint oil to make it smell great.


You will need:

1 cups plain flour

1/2 cup of salt

2 tablespoons of cream of tartar (optional)

1 tablespoons of cooking oil

Food colouring

Glitter (optional)

Peppermint oil (optional)

1 cups of boiling water

1 child or more if you have them



Put all the ingredients in a large bowl and mix. As soon as it starts to bond together and is hard to mix, take it out of the bowl throw it on a board and knead until it takes on the look and consistency of play dough. It will be hot when you take it out of the bowl so be careful.

This recipe is great if you’re planning on making a couple of batches in different colours but if your just making one batch you can quite happily double the amounts.

Don’t worry if you have no cream of tartar  it makes the play dough more elastic but you can still make this play dough recipe  without cream of tartar. Also I have found that while liquid food colourings work fine, Gel food colouring produces a brighter more vivid colour.

Taken From: http://www.thefabulousmomsguide.com/2012/05/how-to-make-play-dough-play-doh-3/


  • It can be in the form of a leaflet or an A4 page guide.
  • It needs to be colourful and interesting to read.
  • Make sure you spell check your work carefully.
  • A bibliography is essential

  • Along with the guide you will be asked to create a model which will illustrate all the features you have included in your guide. To do this you can either make or buy play dough. A recipe of how to make play dough is at the following link.

Example of a model

Example of Model

How will my work be assessed?

It will be assessed by using Criteria A - Knowing and Understanding and C - Communicating.