001 - Global Distribution

Geographic Knowledge and Understanding

Global-scale distribution of cold and high altitude environments (polar, glacial areas, periglacial areas, high mountains in non-polar places) and hot arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid deserts).

YouTube Video




Key Concepts

The difficult for humans to survive and thrive in a place makes it extreme. Physical processes (such as uplift, erosion and atmospheric systems) contribute to the extreme nature of the place. The power of human ingenuity can make human habitation possible in extreme places. The power of the financial gains made possible from the exploitation of a resource is the usual driving force behind humans living in extreme places.



Aims

To be able to describe the distribution of cold and high altitude environments (polar, glacial areas, periglacial areas, high mountains in non-polar places).
To be able to describe the distribution of hot arid environments (hot deserts and semi-arid areas).
To be able to explain why it is cold in high latitude regions.
To be able to explain why it is cold in high altitude locations.
To be able to explain why it is hot and dry in desert and semi-arid areas (tricellular model).
To be able to describe how inaccessibility and remoteness present challenges for human habitation and resource development.
 


Key Terminology

  • Cold environments
  • High altitude environments
  • Polar
  • Glacier
  • Periglacial
  • High mountains
  • Arid desert
  • Semi arid desert
  • Places - Key Concept
Learning the definitions of key terms is essential for you to be able to access what the geographic knowledge and understanding is of each unit. Define the key terms above using your preferred search engine.




Activity One - Discussion

The geographic inquiry is asking us to focus on what classifies an area as extreme. As Geography expects its students to be able to discuss key global issues we are going to look at how we can develop our ideas by using mind mapping skills.
    • Collect a piece of A4 paper and in the middle write the word extreme. Put a bubble around it.
    • Using a different coloured pen write a definition of what the word extreme means to you.
    • In a different colour write down all the characteristics that make an area 'extreme'.
    • Discuss your ideas with your neighbour and add any other characteristics to your paper that you may have missed.



Activity Two - Where?

Before we look at why hot and cold areas are formed in certain areas of the world we actually need to look at a map. Learning how to read a map is an important geographic skill. Look at the maps and answer the questions that are underneath them.

Map One - The map shows the approximate distribution of glaciers, ice caps and the two ice sheets from ESRI’s Digital Chart of the World (DCW), overlaid by the point layer of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI) and the polygons of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) databases (status June 2008). (http://www.grid.unep.ch/glaciers/graphics.php)
Taken From - www.grid.unep.ch

Map Two - A map to show the arid areas of the world - Taken From http://www.madrimasd.org
Taken From: http://www.madrimasd.org/blogs/universo/wp-content/blogs.dir/42/files/370/drylandmap-fuente-ocean-world.jpg

  1. Using the map above describe the location of the glacial and periglacial areas?
  2. Using the map above describe the location of the arid and semi-arid areas?



Activity Three

Geographers need to be able to explain why things happen. For us to explain why the hot and cold areas are found in distinct areas of the world we need to fall back on our understanding of the climate and basic physics. 
  1. With the aid of diagrams explain why glacial and arid areas are they located where they are? Hint you need to consider the following points:
      • Atmospheric pressure and wind systems
      • Relief and the rain shadow effect
      • Cold ocean currents
      • Continentality
      • Offshore winds
      • Changes over time


 Useful Resources

Pages 10 - 16 in 'Arid Environments' by Cole
Tri Cellular Model

Taken From: https://revisegeo.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/tricel.gif

Reasons for the seasons

Why does altitude affect temperature?

Why does Earth have deserts?






Activity Four - Review

Using the small A4 white boards I will be asking you to draw diagrams to explain what makes areas hot, cold, dry or wet. Make sure your review activity three to be able to do this. You may need to go back and make sure that your diagrams are well annotated. 



Exam Style Question

For one named location explain how the location's remoteness and inaccessibility present challenges. [1+2+2]