001 - Poverty Reduction

Geographic Knowledge and Understanding

Global and regional/continental progress towards poverty reduction, including the growth of the "new global middle class".

Taken From: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Working_Together_To_End_Poverty_One_Nail_At_A_Time_-_50th_Anniversary_of_the_March_on_Washington_for_Jobs_and_Freedom.jpg
Taken From: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Working_Together_To_End_Poverty_One_Nail_At_A_Time_-_50th_Anniversary_of_the_March_on_Washington_for_Jobs_and_Freedom.jpg



Key Concepts

The way in which a country develops is a process. Each country will ‘experience’ a different process due to their own unique situation - governance, natural resources, geographical location, climate and population resources.




Aims
  • To be able to describe and explain global progress towards poverty reduction

  • To be able to describe and explain regional/continental progress  towards poverty reduction

  • To be able to explain the growth of the ‘new global middle class’




Key Terminology

  • Poverty

  • G7

  • Middle class

  • Emerging world/market

  • Disposable income

  • Agrarian society

  • Industrial society

  • Re-industrialization


Define the words above by using the useful links below and the course text book. You will be expected to use these words throughout this unit and beyond.

Useful Links

Activity One - Describe

In Geography it is really important to be able to describe trends effectively. When you are faced with a graph you need to describe the overall trend (increasing, decreasing, fluctuating etc) and then illustrate it with data. Then describe any anomalies which also need illustrating with data. If you do not include data in your answers you are losing out on easy marks.

  1. What is the difference between poverty and absolute poverty?
  2. Using image one below describe the trend of global poverty.
  3. Using image two describe the changes in poverty.
  4. Using image three describe the changes in regional poverty.

Image One - A graph to show the percentage rate of the world living in absolute poverty over time.
Taken From: https://ourworldindata.org/extreme-poverty/
Taken From: https://ourworldindata.org/extreme-poverty/


Image Two - Number of people living in poverty.


Image Three - A graph to show regional changes in poverty.



Activity Two - Examples

A fundamental aspect of Geography is being able to link theory to real life examples. But what is the difference between a case study, a detailed example and an example?

 

Case Studies Vs Detailed Examples Vs Examples


Case Study
'A case study is located, detailed and used for discussion. Ideally case studies should be recent...' (IBO Geography Guide 2017)

Example
'When examples are used, students should not just provide one-word responses but should offer some development. An example is a sentence or two that enriches an answer; it may include a specific location, an amount, or a date, all showing a greater depth of knowledge and understanding.' (IBO Geography Guide 2017)

Detailed Example
So what is a detailed example? This bridges somewhere in between the case study and example. A paragraph that includes a specific location and data to show understanding.




Mr. Allaway coined the idea of the IB 'Big Five' countries to try and focus his students to research a more manageable number of case studies. We will be trying to do the same but it is not a hard and fast rule as there are some countries or areas of countries that will help us to answer a syllabus point more effectively than the 'Big Five'. We are going to focus on the following countries:

  
  
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   Taken From: <div>Icons made by <a href="http://www.freepik.com" title="Freepik">Freepik</a> from <a href="https://www.flaticon.com/" title="Flaticon">www.flaticon.com</a> is licensed by <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" title="Creative Commons BY 3.0" target="_blank">CC 3.0 BY</a></div>
Taken From: <div>Icons made by <a href="http://www.freepik.com" title="Freepik">Freepik</a> from <a href="https://www.flaticon.com/" title="Flaticon">www.flaticon.com</a> is licensed by <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" title="Creative Commons BY 3.0" target="_blank">CC 3.0 BY</a></div>
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  • Find the percentage rate of poverty for our big five countries.
 

Useful Resource


Our World in Data - Poverty - Look at the map called 'Share of population in extreme poverty'





Activity Three - Explain
You can hopefully now describe the changes in poverty around the world over time but it is crucial to be able to explain why this has happened. Is it just because the UN have developed a number of goals to be achieved? Or is it changes to the general economy that have occurred in different countries? Or a different reason entirely?

  1. Watch the youtube clip below and write down the reasons why some countries are poor and others are rich. You could mind map this on A4 plain paper with coloured pens if you prefer.
  2. What is Rostow's Model of Development? Draw a diagram to help you explain it.
  3. How does Rostow's Model of Development help to explain levels of poverty?
  4. Describe the Sustainable Development Goal that hopes to alleviate poverty. 

Why are some countries rich and others poor?





Activity Four - Middle Classes - Describe and Explain

While the overall population size of the world is increasing so is the overall wealth. This is generating a larger amount of people who class themselves as middle class. What are we? How can we tell?

  1. Using the abstract and graph below describe the growth of the middle classes.
  2. How can the growth of the middle classes be linked to Rostow's Model of Development?


Image Four - Middle Classes
Taken From: https://www.oecd.org/dev/44457738.pdf

Image Five - A compound bar chart to show the change in percentage rates of the middle classes found in certain regions
Taken From: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/india-tale-two-economies-george-haynes
Taken From: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/india-tale-two-economies-george-haynes




Exam Style Question

Describe and suggest two reasons for global progress towards poverty reduction. (2+2+2 marks)